About history of Laos!
The first history
of Laos was recorded in 1353
about King Fa Ngum who ruled the Kingdom of Lao Lanexang (Million
Elephants) and established Luang
Prabang as his capital city.
During his rule his Kingdom was very strong, powerful and prosperous.
Its huge territories is believed to be the size of all Isan provinces
and Laos combined.
In the 16th century his
successors King Setthathirat continued to bring peace and stability to
the country, he then introduced Buddhism to his people and it became
the predominant religion of the country.
In 1804 King
Anouvong came to the throne in
Vientiane and began to rebuild his kingdom. He built the splendid Wat
Sisaket as a symbol of Lao revival. By 1823 he believed that his
kingdom should be free from Siamese control. His son had already been a
ruler in Champasak. His armies then crossed the Mekong to capture back
some land that took by Siam.
King Anouvong's army advanced
to Korat, the important city in the region and there where his army was
defeated by (Khun Ying Mo or Thao Suranaree). After that defeat his
luck seemed to turn down. The King of Luang Phrabang sided with the
Siamese, Vietnamese aid did not come, and the Siamese King Rama III was
able to mobilize the army and strike back.
Anouvong were defeated at a
battle south of Vientiane in 1827. As a result the city (apart from
some temples) was burned to the ground and its population deported to
Siam. The following year he was captured, and died in a prison in
Thereafter, the conflict with
Siam (now Thailand), Burma, Vietnam and Cambodia in 18th century
brought the country to chaos; thus weakening the kingdom in the history
took control over Laos in the 19th century and established hegemony
over much of the country. The country was divided into three
principalities in the North; Luang
Prabang, the center; Vientiane
and the South; Champasak.
In the northwest, in Xieng
Khouang province was influenced
by the Vietnamese. Late in the century, the French defeated Siam and
took control over Laos and signed the Franco-Siamese treaty in 1907
which defined the present Lao-Thai border.
occupied French Indochina including Laos during World War II in 1945.
After the Japanese surrendered in 1946 French troops reoccupied Laos
again. Prince Souphanouvong
formed the Pathet Lao resistance to fight against colonialism side by
side with the communist movement lead by Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam. This
was the first Indochina war between France and three communist movement
in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.
Nearly ten years struggle
against colonialism together in history of Laos, in 1954 French
defeated in Dien Bien Phu by the Vietnamese and as the results the Geneva
Peace Treaty was signed and
France formally recognized the independence of Laos. This was the first
time in the history of Laos that the country had enjoyed the freedom.
Then the first coalition government led by Prince Souvanna Phouma
was formed. Less than years later the coalition government collapsed,
the rightist forces took over the government and the communist moved to
the jungle and resumed fighting.
Le a paratroop captain seized
Vientiane in a coup in 1960 and demanded formation of a neutralist
government to end the fighting. The neutralist government was once
again led by Souvanna Phouma, but was driven from power later that same
year by rightist forces under General Phoumi Nosavan.
In 1961-1962 a second Geneva
Conference was held in Switzerland and a Geneva Peace Treaty was signed
by all parties to provide peace, independence and neutrality to Laos.
But a few months later, both sides accused each other of violating the
terms of the agreement and with super-power support on both sides the
fighting continued. Although Laos was to be neutral but the civil war
in the country drew Laos into the second Indochina war (1954-75). For
nearly a decade, Laos was subjected to a heavy bombing as the U.S.A
wanted to destroy the Ho Chi Minh Trail to stop north Vietnamese troops
using this supply route to south Vietnam.
In 1973, the Royal Lao's
government and the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP) signed Vientiane
cease-fire agreement to stop
fighting and both sides agreed to form a new coalition government to
run the country side by side. This is an historic moment in the history
of Laos, but the political struggle between communists, neutralists,
and rightists continued.
The fall of Saigon and Phnom
Penh to communist forces in April 1975 made coalition government in
Laos in chaos. Months after these communist victories, the Pathet Lao
occupied Vientiane. On December 2, 1975, the king Sisavangvong, the
last King of Laos abdicated his throne and the Lao People's
Democratic Republic (LPDR) was established and Prince
Souphanouvong became the first president of Laos.
When new communist government
came into power there were an exodus of lowland Lao and ethnic Hmong
from Laos. About 10% of the Lao population sought refugee status after
1975, many of whom resettled in third countries like Australia, Canada,
France, Germany, Japan and the United States. Today they are Laos
overseas living in the foreign
The new government then
renaming the country Lao
People's Democratic Republic,
declared National Day on 2nd December 1975 and created a new
flag for the new era in the
history of Laos and that date became the public
holiday of Laos. Since coming
into power, the new government has opened the new chapter in the
history of Laos by accelerating the development of the basic
infrastructure with financial aid and joint ventures with both
communist and capitalist countries.
After 35 years came into power the Lao People's Democratic Republic government built King Anouvong's Park on the bank of Mekong River opposite the Presidential Palace (Ho Kham) and erected the statue of King Anouvong there. The erection ceremony was held on 23rd August, 2010 to celebrate the life of the great King and remember his greatest scarify to serve and protect the country.
Although Laos is a communist
country, religion, Laos arts, Laos
song, and traditional festivals
are still practice in all part of the country and many capitalist ideas
such as private land and business ownership are encouraged. The price
real estate is increasing year
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